Tuesday, April 2, 2019

Psychological Well-being and Job Performance Relationship

mental Well-being and product line Performance Relationship entrePsychological conceptions and treatments of advantageously-being atomic number 18 a prominent feature of psychological writings particularly in relation to mental tumefyness from a social-psychological point of view. The fundamental questions asked in this ara be arguably concern with the right smart and style of understanding the psychological reactions of persons to the siftes and challenges of modern day action activities, (Bradburn, 1969). With expire being one of the major activities of livelihood it is reasonable to distrust give out will fuddle a significant impact on mental wellness and that vice versa mental health will have a significant impact on a persons writ of execution and experience of buy the farm. With the diversity of criteria which can be used to justness mental health the psychological aspects to mental health have proceed increasingly substantial associated in sympathet ic p propagation solicitude literature as well arrangemental behaviour query because of the suggested strong relationship among an individuals psychological condition and chore surgical process. Researchers such as David and Smeeding (1985) and more(prenominal) recently Wright and Cropanzano (2004) argue that psychological welfare in harm of happiness contributes to maximising both individualisedised health as well as job execution of instrument in impairment of organisational productivity.It is reasonable to imagine that such a circumstance of mental health has valuable implications in managing homosexual mental imagerys. With links to employee pauperism and job carrying out circumspection and from an organisational military position the theoretical framework offered by mental health fork outs a utile tool in understanding an organisations behaviour with reference to the psychological offbeat of individuals within the organisational context. In one m ode then considering for vitrine staff retention which is a key member of organisational strategies since human resources have been viewed recently as one of the most of import resources for any organisation, (Torrington, Hall and Taylor (2002). Furthermore happy employees tend to be more productive and contribute more in creation and innovation activities which are crucial activities for organisations given the competitory realities of the modern business world, (Wright and Cropanzano, 2004). However currently there is no general agreement about the best way to measure, assess and/or evaluate peoples psychological states. monetary value such as self-esteem, self queuement in dealing with work stress have critical influences on the level of wellbeing. Social deliver at work cerebrate to psychological eudaemonia may be said to affect productivity of employees which itself is argued to have exacting effects on job control, lower job depression and generate higher(prenominal ) productivity. up to now the extent to which social support contributes to mitigate motion remains indecipherable collectible to the complexities of psychological reactions and the processes comprising them.DiscussionAn chief(prenominal) perspective on well-being originates from the social-psychological perspective which focuses on viewing well-being in both an individual and social sense. One means of conceptualising well-being is in an individual psychological manner where the subject is linked with stinting models in that individuals addle keen-witted responses in changing their behaviour due to changing prices and incomes. Another traditionalistic aspect of the subjective activity of well-being focuses on the measure of well-being for social policy purposes which historically has been concerned with tax return, pensions, use of health care resources and work environment affairs, (David Smeeding, 1985). From this point of view there are vital implications in the sense of the psychological subject in human resource management and studies dealing with organisational behaviour since people as the subjective elements performing tasks in these contexts. For example the recent broaden-and-build model has been designed to provide relevant evidence towards explaining the possible interactive role of physiological well-being (PWB) associated with job satisfaction and job performance which demonstrates significant relationships to employee performance, (Wright and Cropanzano, 2004). This is to ordain illustrating the effectuality of the correlation surrounded by the happier an employee timber with the more productive they are in their everyday job performance.Based on this viewpoint then human resource management approaches have aimed at building management models which attractive force from and benefit from PWB in revisal to improve an organisations performance in price of quality and quantity. A principal point of consideration in this then is th e environment in which people are running(a) in as detrimental work environments pose potential health risks to individuals. Health risks can be seen in call of the physical disparage done to peoples bodies but overly as having oppose influences in a psychological manner including depression and stress which outlets in poor job performance and lowered productivity. Thus PWB suggests that a better and healthier operative environment will be able to make employee feels more comfortable and happier through health gains in harm avoidance in the work place. In HRM literature environment not lonesome(prenominal) includes physical environments such as machinery, organisational structure but also impalpable asset contexts like organisational culture and leadership styles and these are equally as of import in terms of employee well-being. Therefore Beardwell, Holden and Claydon (2004) argue that appropriate organisational structures in terms of physical power distance as well as i n manifest distance such as leadership style are strategic in contributing to employees job performance.Research suggests that long power distances extend in staff at lower levels within an organisation feeling powerless and vulnerable with the consequences being they suffer stress at work since there is a lack of opportunity in expressing themselves within the finish making processes affecting them, (Hersey, Blanchard Johnson, 2001). Additionally the corporeal environment in terms of employment contracts themselves a process of socio- frugal exchange often in internal contexts is particularly crucial as it defines formalised arrangements mingled with employee and the organisation employing, (Clark, 2004). Contracts between employee and employer determine the terms and conditions of employment like security and health issues related to the job and contractual employment rights. Clark (2004) points out that the relationship between employees and management teams not only impac ts on corporate performance but also influences how successful and organisation is at retaining its workforce.While Wright and Cropanzano (2004) concentrate on the psychological meaning of well-being in contributing to better job performance David and Smeeding (1985) propose that significant attention be paid to well-being from an economic perspective. Economic elements such as changing prices compared to incomes then are proposed as affecting peoples behaviours and psychological reactions. For instance research has show that higher income individuals are more likely than lower income individuals to report themselves as enjoying higher levels of happiness, (David and Smeeding, 1985). It hence is unsurprising to note that traditional human resource management approaches view performance management as enhancing individual performance by assessing past performance and rewarding improvements in terms of tangible economic benefits, (Walker, 1992). Jacques (1962) claims that every employe e displays strong feeling towards to the level of toleratement in that such payments correspond to the perceived values attached to the performance of tasks associated with the job. This economic model closely reflects psychological conceptions in that when employees feel they are underpaid job performance will suffer in terms of productivity and efficiency.Wright and Cropanzanos model suggests that fair payment contributes to the happiness level of staff but it is vital to mention that the expectation of employee namely the subjectivity of well-being largely indicates different attitudes towards fairness. This is to say the employee who is paid comparably higher than others due to higher levels of education and vocational skill might feel unhappy because the pay level is still lower than the expected level. This is similar with subjective accounts of impoverishment of the unemployed being more a negative experience than indigence as a student dependent on their ability to adju st the reality of situations with their expectations. This corresponds with David and Smeedings (1985) framework on the subjectivity of well-being as a personalised experience. Recent research carried out by Gregg and Wadsworth (1999) illustrated that a good number of employee departures was due to either poorly managed expectations or unable inductions into positions. This is an important point in considering psychological well-being and individual productivity as well as organisational performance illustrating that tangible economic benefits or objective conditions attached to jobs may be perceived in many an(prenominal) different ways as a result of individual subjectivity.Wright and Hobfolls (2004) work linked with Wright and Cropanzanos (2004) research in demonstrating that psychological well-being has both substantiative and negative influences on job performance. One such concept is that of employee burnout which refers to emotional and/or physical exhaustion and reduced p ersonal accomplishment amongst sufferers. Employees tend to feel dissatisfied due to poor task completion and personal achievement in turn. Past experiences of failure in dealing with customers for example is suggested as being one prime means of reducing motivational attitudes towards work. With people being considered as the most important resource in contributing to organisational performance then human resource management has itself been put in a critical position in strategic decision making processes. Aspects of managing human resources have become problematical in a wide range of issues such as enlisting and retention related to development, reward and relationship management of employees are arguably the basic HRM functions. The process of retention of workforces lays the foundation for obtaining suitably qualified employees in order to contribute in the most effective manner to achieving corporate goals in a cost-effective manner, (Foot Hook, 1999). The relationship to th ese HR principles of the thesis of psychological well-being in one ways shows clearly that motivation in the employee retention process as well as better performance is a principal factor determining organisational success in these areas. withal from an individuals perspective burnout as suggested by research tends to result in ineffectiveness and failure in job performance due to a lack of energy levels in an emotional and physical sense. This leads to stress which in turn can cause ill-health both physical and mental. as well as from the organisations perspective innovation levels tends to decrease which as has been argued is important in maintaining competitive position for companies operating in intensively competitive industries, (Maslach Jackson, 1986 Lee Ashforth, 1996).Based on this analysis and discussion of psychological well being it would appear that a useful measure is to examine the different approaches used to improve job performance and productivity at personal and organisational levels. People are motivated by different things dependent on different individual value systems and expectations. As such in order to increase well being levels among employees organisations attempt to create better working(a) environments relying on supportive corporate cultures, effective leadership styles and the provision of handy communication channels. An awareness that motivation does not necessarily flow from positive salary arrangements alone is necessary as often such is considered as the most effective tool in rewarding and motivating employees. or else potential career development opportunities for employees, employee friendly working environments and supportive management methods exert strong influences on feelings of well-being among employees.For example positive rewards in a tangible way and intangible confirmations related to good performance should encourage employees to repeat the same activities since the rewarding of successful behaviour c ontributes to employees levels of self esteem. In many ways then it is fair to say that psychological processes and subjective feelings and experiences remain complex phenomena and would seem to be influenced by a range of factors such as national cultures and the effects of reference groups like families and peer groups in for example expected income levels and job status, (Mullins, 2005). The measurement of psychological well-being contributing to better performance is conditionally straightforward yet it must be acknowledged that the methods used in research such as by Wright and Cropanzanos (2004) exhibit and are special(a) by the potential problems related to subjective reactions and perceptions of job performance by employees.ConclusionModels and theories of psychological well-being are established topics in psychological science which is held as being closely linked with conceptualisations of mental health and the mental well being of individuals. The variety of psychologic al reactions of individuals to stress and daily life can all result in feeling of happiness, mental health or illness depending on situational factors which has effects on peoples performance at work. As a result then psychological conceptions of well-being are widely used in considering the relationship between well-being and job performance in an organisational context. Studies have demonstrated the positive effects of employee well-being on their job performance in terms of better productivity yet due to the complex psychological processes which are involved in the condition of well-being there is still a lack of definitive evidence in demonstrating to what extent psychological well-being contributes to better job performance. Such evidence is difficult to produce for example bearing in mind complicated human behavioural patterns and experiences in relation to work. Linked to this definitions of happiness remain unclear and is an area which requires nurture research along with f urther explorations of the reasons feeling of satisfaction and happiness with work increases productivity. However it is fair to say that better health levels in terms of psychological well being influences people in terms of motivation and attitudes toward work as well as their capacity and ability to work. The step-down of employee sickness whether major or minor due to poor working conditions and the impact this has on organisational performance is one aspect any organisation should seek to reduce and minimise as a strategic goal.ReferencesBeardwell, I., Holden, L. Claydon, T. (2004) man imagination Management A Contemporary Approach 4th edition, FT assimilator Hall, London UK.Bradburn, N.M. (1969) The Structure of Psychological Well-Being, Aldine Publishing Company, Chicago.David, M. Smeeding T. (1985) Introduction, in David, M. Smeeding, T. (eds) horizontal Equity, Uncertainty, and Economic Well-Being, National Bureau of Economic Research, Studies in Income and Wealth, Vo l. 50.Foot, M. Hook, C. (1999) Introducing Human Resource Management 2nd edition, Pearson Education Limited, UK.Gregg, P. Wadsworth, J. (1999) Job Tenure 1995-98 in Gregg, P. Wadsworth (eds) The bring up of hunt downing Britain, Manchester University Press, UK.Hersey, P., Blanchard, K.H. Johnson, D. (2001) Management of Organizational Behavior Leading Human Resources, Prentice Hall, USA.Jacques, C. (1962) Objective Measures for Pay Differentials, Harvard Business Review, January-February.Lee, R.T. Ashforth, B.E. (1996) A Meta-analytic Examination of the Correlates of the Three Dimensions of Job Burnout, ledger of Applied Psychology, Vol. 81.Maslach, C. Jackson, S.E. (1986) Maslach Burnout Inventory 2nd edition, Consulting Psychologists Press, USA.Mullins, L.J. (2005) Management and Organisational Behaviour seventh edition, FT Prentice Hall, Harlow UK.Park, K., Wilson, M.G. Lee, M.S. (2004) Effects of Social Support at Work on Depression and Organisational Productivity, Ame rican Journal of Health Behaviour, Vol. 28 abbreviate 5.Torrington, D., Hall, L. Taylor, S. (2002) Human Resource Management, FT Prentice Hall, Harlow UKWalker, K.W. (1992) Human Resource Strategy, McGraw-Hill, bleak York USA.Wright, T.A. Cropanzano, R. (2004) The Role of Psychological Well-Being in Job Performance a Fresh Look at an Age-Old Quest, Organizational Dynamics, Vol.33 Issue 4.Wright, T.A. Hobfoll, S.E. (2004) Commitment, Psychological Well-Being, and Job Performance An Examination of Conservation of Resources Theory and Job Burnout, Journal of Business and Management, Winter Vol.9 Issue 4.

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