Sunday, September 1, 2019

Ap World History Units 1-3 Study Guide

Unit One 1. Consequences of the Neolithic Revolution didn’t includeEnd of hunting-gathering societies2. Most scholars believe that, during the Paleolithic Age, social organization was characterized byA rough social equality3. The earliest metal worked systemically by humans areCopper4. The spread of the Bantu-speaking peoples over southern Africa can be best explained by theirKnowledge of agriculture5. Characteristics of complex civilizationsSpecialization of laborTrade and cultural diffusionWritten languagesComplex political order and power6. Evidence proves that the MesopotamiansTraded extensively with peoples as far away as Anatolia, Egypt, & India7. Major effect of Neolithic RevolutionThe establishment of sedentary village communities8. Conditions for women in MesopotamiaGrew increasingly worse over time9. The division of the ancient people into social and gender hierarchies was first made possible byRise in agricultural production10. Ethical monotheism was the tradition of theHebr ews11. Hammurabi’s code was based on the concept of â€Å"lex talionis† but the punishments were shaped byThe social standing of the accused2. The Hittites who were the most influential ancient Indo-European migrants into southwest Asia are credited forHorse-drawn chariotsMetallurgyMigrating from southern RussiaDefeating the Babylonians13. The society who began the custom of embalming to preserve the body for its life after deathEgypt14. Which metal was most important in transforming agricultural societies into large urban civilizations?Iron15. In which society did women enjoy the most freedom and opportunity?Egypt16. In tribes which, as early as 3000 BCE, began to spread their language and agricultural techniques throughout Africa were theBantu17. The Chinese philosophy that promoted strict social and political control was* Legalism18. Social distinctions in Early River Valley civilizations were* Less pronounced than in Neolithic19. By spreading their language across a huge stretch of Africa, the Bantu played a role similar to that played by* Indo-Europeans20. The Bantu probably began their migrations because of* Population pressures21. Much of the early Harappan history remains a mystery because* The archeological remains are under water22. The biggest military advantages of the Indo-Europeans was* Their horses23. Most of our information about the early Aryans comes from the* Vedas24. Correct groupings of early societies and their rivers* Mesopotamia – Tigris & Euphrates; Egypt – Nile; Harappan – Indus; China – Huang He25. Harappan society* Most of their houses featured private showers and toilets* They traded extensively with the Mesopotamians* They had social distinctionsThey produced representational art 26. Group that retained much more influence on family structure in China than in other early civilizations* The extended family27. The Chinese concept of the â€Å"Mandate of Heaven† was sometimes used to justify* Rebellion28. Early China enjoyed lasting direct long-distance trade with* None29. Ritual bloodletting was crucial to Maya rituals because* It was associated with rain & agriculture30. The most characteristic artistic creation of the Olmecs were* Colossal human heads sculpted with basalt31. The Aryans affected the Indian sub-continent by A common written language* Adding race to the caste system* Establishing the Silk Road trade* Advanced use of technology32. Which of the following mathematical concepts, essential for positional notation and the manipulation of large numbers, was invented by Mayan mathematicians?* Zero33. The ultimate source of wealth in any agricultural society is* Land34. This passage from the Upanishads explain what Hindu concept? â€Å"According as a man acts and walks in the path of life, so he becomes. He that does good becomes good; he that does evil becomes evil. †* Karma35. Which early Mesopotamian ruler believed that the gods had chosen to â€Å"promote the welfare of the people†¦ (and) to cause justice to prevail in the land†?* Hammurabi36. During the time of the Aryans the Indian political landscape was characterized by* A series of small kingdoms37. Contributions of the River Valley Civilizations* Metallurgy in agriculture, welfare and art* The wagon wheel* Written forms of communication* The calendar and the 60-second minute38. What two River Valley civilizations are most alike as far as their use of regionalism and the decentralization of political power?* Olmec and Chavin39. Confucian social order* Loyalty to the ruler* Filial obedience to one’s father* Respect of younger brother to older brother* Respect of husband to wife40. Women were important contributors to the agricultural revolut ion because they were likely the* Gender who gathered edible plants and grew various grains41. Shang and Zhou China originated the â€Å"Mandate of Heaven† primarily* As a way to demonstrate the divinity of the emperor42. The government structures of early Mesopotamia and Egypt* In both civilizations power was concentrated in the hands of a king who was considered a god43. The Chinese copied their chariots from* The steppe nomads44. The Period of Warring States refers to the * Chaotic last centuries of the Zhou dynasty 45. The early Chinese shipped textiles and metal goods to the ancestors of the Turks and Mongols in the steppes and received what in return?* Horses46. Which of the following is a key philosophical and religious element of Daoism?* Emphasis on harmony between humanity47. Which of the following describes the major effect of Bantu migrations?* Cultural commonalities in sub-Saharan Africa48. Confucius argued that* Educations is essential to becoming a refined gentleman49. The device the ancient Olmec build in order to trap silt carried by the numerous rivers passing through the Mesoamerican lowlands* Terraces50. The proper order from top to bottom of the original Aryan caste system?* Priests, warriors, farmers/merchants, laborers, polluted laborers51. One key role of the caste system which was unlike other systems of social inequality in the ancient world was that the caste system* Served to maintain order and stability as political systems did in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China52. What p urpose do scholars believe paleolithic Venus figurines served? The figurines reflect a deep interest in fertility necessary for the generation of the new life 53. A key geographic difference between ancient Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Harappan, and Chinese society was thatEgypt and China were more isolated and therefore protected by their environment than there were the Mesopotamians or Harappans54. Olmec and Mesopotamian political traditions are an example of* Decentralized monarchy55. Because of the immense size of the Zhou state, its emperors were forced to* Institute a feudal system of the governmentUnit Two1. An important reason for the fall of the Roman, Han, and Gupta empires was * Intensified invasions and security issues along their frontiers 2. Before 500 C. E. Judaism and Hinduism were similar in that both * Had written scriptures and an ethical code to live by 3. In organizing their empire, Persian rulers relied heavily on techniques of administration from the * Mesopotamians 4. The Medes and Persians were originally * Indo-European tribes 5. The classic Persian governmental approach was * An enlightened an tolerant one 6. The Persian legal code was designed to * Codify laws of the subject peoples 7. The center of the Persian communications network was * The Royal Road 8. Basic tenets of Zoroastrianism that influenced later religions * The belief in heaven and hell * The encouragement of high moral standards * The doctrine that individuals will undergo a final judgment * The belief that each individual plays a key role in determining his or her spiritual destiny 9. The Qin and Han dynasties * Went further than the Persian emperors in their efforts to foster cultural unity 10. Confucian terms * Ren – benevolence * Xiao – filial piety * Dao – way * Junzi – superior individuals 11. The philosophy that criticized the social activism, and instead, proposed a life of reflection and introspection was * Daoism 12. What was the school of philosophical thought that returned order to China after the Period of Warring States? * Legalism 13. Qin Shihuangdi’s most important contribute to China was * Establishing a precedent for centralized imperial rule 14. The Han philosophy of rule was * A contribution of Qin policies of centralizations 15. In 124 B. C. E. , Han Wudi transformed China by * Establishing an imperial university 16. Which popular treatise emphasized humility, obedience, subservience, and devotion to their husbands as the virtues most appropriate for women? * Admonitions for Women 17. As the Han dynasty became more powerful and wealthy, * The gap between rich and poor grew dangerously large 18. The Indian political scene changed dramatically in 520 B. C. E. when new administrative techniques were introduced after the invasion of the * Persians 19. The rock and pillar edicts were issued by Ashoka 20. One of the biggest financial problems of the later Mauryan period was the ruler’s decision to * Debase the currency 21. Politically, the Guptas * Left local government and administration in the hands of their allies 22. The success and timing of trade, through the Indian Ocean basin, largely depended on * Understanding the rhythms of the monsoon winds 23. One of the biggest transformations of the caste system during this period was * The rise of guilds, which essentially served as jati 24. The greatest social contribution of the Jains was The fact that they did not recognize social hierarchies based on caste 25. When Krishna tells Arjuna, in the Bhagavad Gita, â€Å"Having regards to your own duty, you ought not to falter, for there is nothing better for a Kshatriya than a righteous battle,† he is referring to what Hindu principle? * Dharma 26. The political structure of the ancient Greeks * Usually considered of independent, autonomous city-states 27. The Greeks used the word polis to refer to the * The city-state 28. Athenian democracy was open to * All Athenian citizens 29. Events that occurred during the time of Pericles * Athenian democracy reached its high point Athens became the most sophisticated of the poleis * Athenian expansion and arrogance helped spark the Peloponnesian War * Athens underwent a massive building program 30. Affects that came about because of Greek colonization * An increase in the size and diversity of trade * The spread of Greek language and cultural traditions * A quickening of the tempo of social life * Increased contact with other societies 31. Consequences of the Neolithic Revolution * Incidence of disease increased * Widening gender differences * Rapid increase in human population * Increase in reliable food supply 32. In The Republic, Plato proposed that the true rulers of society should be * Philosopher kings 33. The Roman policy toward conquered peoples was * Generous with potential for citizenship 34. The Roman policy of toleration and respect for conquered peoples was most similar to the * Persians 35. The land route of the silk roads ran from the Han capital of _____________ to the Mediterranean port of _____________. * Chang’an; Antioch 36. Latifundia were * Enormous plantations worked by slaves 37. After naming himself dictator in 46 B. C. E. Julius Caesar * Launched large-scale building projects in Rome Extended Roman citizenship to peoples in the imperial provinces * Appointed some Gauls to the Roman senate * Seized the land from the conservatives and distribute it to his army veterans 38. The reign of Augustus inaugurated a period known as paxromana in which caused * Common coinage * Common language * Greco-Roman art * Stoicism 39. Foundations of Roman Law * The principle that defendants were innocent until proven guilty * The notion that defendants had a right to challenge their accusers before a judge in a court or law * The ability of judges to set aside laws that were inequitable 40. The information that Zhang Qian brought back encouraged Han Wudi to destroy the Xiongnu and lay out the foundations for the * Silk roads 41. The fact that by the first century C. E. southeast Asian kings called themselves rajas shows how they were influenced by the * Indians 42. By around the year 600 C. E. , the ravages of epidemic diseases had caused both the Mediterranean and Chinese populations decrease by * At least a quarter 43. In the year 184 C. E. , peasant discontent in China led to an uprising known as the * Yellow Turban rebellion 44. With the collapse in political order after the fall of the Han Empire, * Daoism and Buddhism became much more popular 45. The Roman Empire was divided into two parts by * Dio Cletian 46. The social distinctions in Early River Valley civilizations were * Did not exist as they did in pervious times 47. After the collapse of the western half of the Roman Empire, imperial authority survived for another thousand years in the * Byzantine Empire 48. Major effect of Bantu migrations * Cultural commonalities in sub-Saharan AfricaUnit 3: Part I1. Agricultural production increased throughout medieval Europe mainly esult of a * A heavier plow * Water and wind powered mills 2. Arabic conquests of Mesopotamia and Persia influenced the women in the Islamic world by making * Society more patriarchal 3. Characteristics of the medieval period of Europe * Political order through feudalism * Economic order through manorialism * Religious order through Church * Expanded trade and education 4. The expansion of communication and trade networks in Afro-Eurasia from 600 C. E. to 1450 C. E. resulted in the spread of what from South Asia? * Technological and scientific concepts such as decimal and zero 5. Foot binding is probably the best example of * The increasingly patriarchal nature of Chinese society 6. During the Tang and Song periods, the imperial â€Å"examination system† * Expanded and filled posts based on intellectual ability and merit 7. When comparing northern and southern India during the postclassical era, it can be stated that * The south suffered through far fewer invasions than the north did 8. The success of the Byzantine â€Å"theme system† was most dependent upon * Promoting rural agriculture with few imperial restrictions 9. Islam became very popular in India and within different segments of Hindu society because * It emphasized equality and it was less exclusionary than Hinduism 10. The term â€Å"samurai† describes men in feudal Japan who were most like these men in Europe * Knights 11. Gender relations up to 1000 C. E. * In some societies, women enjoyed more rights than in others 12. The impact of commercial trade during this period * Technology, crops and religious ideology spread from China in the east to Europe in the west while also connecting India, the Middle East and Africa’s Swahili coast 13. Constantinople Was constructed by Constantine * Allowed the imperial court to keep watch on the Sasanid Empire in Persia * Was built because the eastern half was the wealthier and more productive part of the empire * Allowed the imperial court to keep watch on Germanic tribes on the Danube 14. The items Marco Polo encountered at Kublai Khan’s court and described to Europeans * Paper money * Food stocks – noodles * â€Å"Black stones† – coal * Gunpowder 15. Middle Eastern trade in the period between 1000 to 1400 * A unified Islamic Empire which eliminated tariffs and encouraged trade 16. Justinian’s most significant long-term accomplishment * He regulated and established a new uniform legal code for his empire 17. Comparison of the political systems in western Europe and China during the time period 1000 – 1300 * Western Europe developed multiple monarchies while China maintained a single empire 18. After the fall of Rome, the only real institutions of learning in Western Europe were the * Christian monasteries 19. Hagia Sophia was * The magnificent church at Constantinople 20. Major public work that was first constructed by emperor Yangdi during the Sui Dynasty in China * The Grand Canal 21. A result of the Viking raids on Europe from the 8th to the 10th centuries was that * Europeans organized into feudalistic societies for protection 22. In 1054 the pope in Rome and the patriarch in Constantinople * Mutually excommunicated each other 23. Charlemagne * He expanded the Frankish territory * He supported education and literacy * He instituted the missi dominci * He established his capital in Aachen 24. Guilds during the Late Medieval period Admitted women as members 25. Relationships between Islam and the influence it received from other cultures * India – mathematics & economics * Persia – literacy works & politics * Greece – philosophy & medicine * China – paper, cotton & silk 26. The main Indian influence on Islamic thought was in the field of * Mathematics 27. Major result of the Christian Crusades * Europeans were introduced to new technology, trade and cultural exchanges 28. Common feature of most Middle Eastern, Asian and European societies during the period of 1000 to 1450 * A close association with religion 29. The most striking difference between the Tang and the Song dynasties affecting their survival was * The differing ways they chose to deal with nomads on their frontiers 30. The two major sources of stability during the Medieval period of Europe * Feudalism and the Catholic church 31. In regard to political structure, postclassical India * Developed no single centralized imperial authority 32. An invasion in 451 C. E. , by the White Huns, began the collapse of the * Gupta dynasty 33. In 711, the northern Indian area of Sind fell to the * Umayyad dynasty 34. The most important new crop introduced to China during the Tang and Song periods was * Fast-ripening rice 35. The primary difference between Shiite Muslims and Sunni Muslims is a disagreement over * The leadership of the Muslim community after Muhammad’s death 36. The Indian ruler Harsha was known for * His Buddhist faith and his benevolent treatment of his subjects 37. Legacy of the Vikings during the medieval period * Feudalism * Exploration * Warfare * Shipping technology 38. The Abbasid Dynasty differed from the Umayyad Dynasty in that * It was not a conquering dynasty 39. The Delhi sultans were Never able to expand their control beyond northern India 40. The Crusades by European Christians at the end of the eleventh century were motivated primarily by * Efforts to unite religious power and retake control of Jerusalem and the Holy Lands 41. An example of interaction among Indian, Arab and European societies by 1200 was the transfer of * Numerals and decimal system 42. The Tang planned to avoid the concentration of land by the wealthy by implementing the * New economic planning system 43. Zheng He was * The Chinese admiral who made seven journeys of exploration 44. Hindu temples Played an important role in the agricultural and financial development of southern India 45. Major reason for the rapid expansion of Islam during the 7th & 8th centuries * The advanced military technology of the Islam forces 46. India was a natural location for the establishment of emporia because of * Its central locations in the Indian Ocean basin 47. Achievements of the Early Middle Ages * A restoration of political order through a feudal system * Some economic recovery because of agricultural advancement * The creation of an institutional framework for the Christian church based in Rome 48. The adoption of the Neo-Confucianism by the Ming dynasty during the 14th century was primarily motivated by the * Need for competent government administrators 49. The Byzantine Empire achieved * The conversion of many Slavic peoples to Christianity 50. Islamic & Chinese empires in the postclassical period (700 – 1200 C. E. ) shared a characteristic of * Extensive urbanization & maritime trade 51. Most important effect of Islamic expansion on the civilizations of medieval Europe * The transmittal of Greek & Arab learning 52. The development and spread of Christianity and Buddhism both * Were outgrowths of other religions * Were aided in their spread by the trade networks * Developed monastic orders * Venerated people of high spiritual merit 53. In medieval society, political power was vested in * Local authorities 54. The most important relationship in feudalism was between * Lord and retainerUnit 3: Part 21. The largest empire of all time was created by the * Mongols 2. The Inca quipu was * A record keeping device consisting of small cords with knots 3. The political power of the khans was based on Indirect rule through the leaders of allied tribes 4. In an effort to strengthen the Mongol fighting forces, Chinggis Khan * Formed new military units with no tribal affiliations 5. Who made a famous pilgrimage to Meca in 1324 – 1325? * Mansa Musa 6. Khubilal Khan’s military and imperial pursuits * Had little success when he tried to conquer Vietnam, Cambodia, Burma, and Japan 7. Ethiopian Christianity * Retained both traditional African and Christian beliefs 8. The Mongols brought greater integration among Eurasian peoples by * Increased trade * Resettlement of conquered peoples Diplomatic missions 9. Devastation wrought by the bubonic plague played a key role in the fourteenth century collapse of the * Yuan dynasty 10. The introduction of a new crop about 400 C. E. encouraged a fresh migratory surge in Africa. What was the crop? * Bananas 11. The first European nation to dominate trade with Asia was * Portugal 12. By the middle of the first millennium B. C. E. , the Bantu had begun to produce * Iron 13. The late fourteenth century Turkish ruler who weakened the Golden Horde, sacked Delhi, and launched campaigns in southwest Asia and Anatolla, was * Tamerlane 14. One of the central factors in the establishment of trans-Saharan trade was * The domestication of the camel 15. By the tenth century C. E. , the kings of Ghana had converted to * Islam 16. Foundations of Mali’s power * Control over trans-Saharan trade * A strong cavalry * A series of powerful kings 17. During the period of Mongol domination, * Long-distance trade became much less risky 18. In regard to political structure, the Aztec empire * Had no elaborate bureaucracy 19. Just as the kingdoms of west Africa depended on trans-Saharan trade, the kingdoms of east Africa depended on * Indian Ocean trade 20. The Ilkhanate in Persia began a rapid decline in the 1200s * After the government issued paper money 21. Since there was no concept of private ownership of land in sub-Saharan Africa, * Slave ownership formed an important aspect of determining personal wealth 22. Historians estimate that between 750 and 1500 C. E. , the number of slaves transported north as part of the trans-Saharan slave was * Ten million 23. In the five centuries after the year 1000 C. E. , the peoples of the eastern hemisphere * Traveled and interacted more intensively than ever before 24. By 1750, all parts of the world participated in a global trade network in which European’s played dominant roles except * Australia 25. Khubilal Khan employed Marco Polo in administrative posts * Because he did not entirely trust his Chinese subjects 26. When Pope Innocent IV sent envoys to invite the Mongols in an alliance against the Muslims, * The khans declined and in turn told the Christians to submit to Mongol rule or be destroyed 27. Ibn Battuta was able to travel so extensively because * His religious and legal training allowed him to serve as qadi 28. Product that had a new impact during this period of increasing interaction * Silk 29. The North American Indian societies * Possessed no form of writing 30. Common results of a bubonic plague * A decline in trade * A decline in population * Peasant rebellions caused by efforts to freeze wages 31. The Yongle Encyclopedia * Represented the Ming rulers’ interest in supporting native Chinese cultural traditions 32. Central to the Renaissance thought beginning in northern Italy was * A fascination with the ancient world 33. Mali became the wealthiest kingdom in sub-Saharan Africa because of * Its control of the gold trade 34. Humanist moral philosophers believed that * People could lead morally virtuous lives while participating in the world 35. Under Spanish rule of the Philippines, the native population * Was pressured to convert to Roman Catholicism 36. In regard to exploration, Prince Henry was to Portugal what _________ was to China. * Wan Li 37. The Toltec state collapsed by around 1175 because * Of a combination of civil conflict and nomadic invasion 38. The chinampa system refers to * The Aztec practice of dredging fertile muck from the lake’s bottom 39. In regard to gender issues in sub-Saharan Africa, Women had more opportunities open to them than did their counterparts in other societies 40. Rulers among the Mexica were chosen by * A council made up of the most successful warriors 41. A Mexica woman who died in childbirth * Won the same fame as warriors who died valiantly in battle 42. The Aztecs viewed human sacrifice * As an essential ritual to ensure the world’s survival 43. North American societies * Developed on a relatively small scale 44. In regard to political structure, the early Bantu societies * Governed themselves mostly through family and kinship groups 45. The Inca imposed order By taking hostages from the conquered tribes’ ruling classes 46. Hallmark of Hongwu’s rule * The reestablishment of Confucian education * Extensive use of the civil service system * The reestablishment of the civil service system 47. The cultural and religious traditions of the Australian aborigines * Did not diffuse much beyond their own regions 48. During the early modern era, which of the following non-European peoples explored the Indian Ocean? * Chinese 49. In sub-Saharan Africa, an age grade was * A publicly recognized group that performed tasks based on their strength and maturity 50. Main inspirations for European exploration * The desire to conquer China and India 51. The invasions of the nomadic Turkish and Mongol tribes between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries * Facilitated greater cross-cultural communication and integration 52. Reasons for the European interest in finding a maritime trade route * The spread of the bubonic plague made the silk roads more dangerous * The high prices charged by Muslim merchants * The demand in Europe for items such as Indian pepper and Chinese ginger 53. The Reconquista came to an end in 1492 when * The Muslim kingdom of Granada fell to Spanish Catholic forces 54. Chinese inventions * Sternpost rudder and magnetic compass 55. The profitable merchandise that Vasco da Gama purchased in India was made up of * Pepper and cinnamon 56. The Portuguese dominance of trade was dependent on their ability to * Force merchant ships to call at fortified trading sites and pay duties 57. In the end, Portugal was unable to maintain its early domination of trade because * It was a small country with a small population 58. Advantages that the English and Dutch had over the Portuguese * They possessed faster, cheaper, and more powerful ships * They created joint-stock companies * They were wealthier countries 59. The Dutch policy in Indonesia was * To control the production of spices 60. The country that finished the Seven Years’ War with global hegemony was * England 61. In the long term, the Columbian exchange * Increased world population because of the spread of new food crops 62. From 1500 to 1800, the largest contingent of migrants consisted of * Enslaved Africans

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