Saturday, April 6, 2019

Road to Independence Notes Essay Example for Free

Road to Independence Notes EssayPeople are reconsidering the indemnity of colonialism. 1. later on WWII, heap questioned whether dictatorship was a good thought process. 2. All nations should be free from the power of different nations. 3. Keeping colonies had a high cost. It wasnt worth it. 4. Colonized deal pressed harder for exemption. Ex British-held India II. A Movement To contendfared Independence A. The Indians strive to freedom intensifies. 1. British had power over India for 2 centuries. 2. Britain drafted Indians into WWII in 1939 with turn out the con direct of the the colonys representatives. . Gandhi launched civil disobedience and umteen who followed were ar slumbered. 4. To gain favor of the Indians, Britain promised establishment changes afterwards WWII, but didnt offer freedom. B. Besides colonialism, India struggles with internal conflict. 1. They have religious disagreements. 350 million Hindus blow million Muslims 2. The Congress Party (aka Indian National Congress Indias national political party) was profit up mostly of Hindus, and a few Muslims. C. The Muslim League is executed. 1. The Muslim League (1906) is the organization against the mostly Hindu Congress Party, aimed to protect Muslim interest. . (The leader) Muhammad Ali Jinnah asked all Muslims to leave the Congress party. He would not simulate freedom from Britain if it meant staying under Hindu rule. III. Freedom Brings Turm vegetable oil A. The decision of who receives power is being make. 1. The British bemused much wealth after WWII, and was ready to turn over their power, since keeping up with colonies was costly. 2. The power automatic either be given to Hindus or Muslims. B. Muslims resisted Hindu domination. 1. Rioting skint out and in 1946, there were 20,000 casualties in a 4 day clash in Calcutta. C. Pakistan was created. 1.To maintain peace, Britain steady d beard to partition (division of Indian religions into separate nations idea branch bro ught up by Muslims) India. 2. North western and eastern part of India became Pakistan which was predominate by Muslims. D. Everything in India was being divided. 1. British granted India and Pakistan a month of liberty in July 16, 1947. 2. Princes had to decide which nation theyd join. 3. The civil service (courts, military, railways, police) was divided. 4. The differing religions had to decide where to go. E. One million people died during the move to their recent nation. 1.Muslims killed Sikhs moving to India. 2. Sikhs and Hindus killed Muslims going to Pakistan. 3. Gandhi went to the Indian capital (Delhi) to ask for mercy, but was killed by a hindu ultra in January 30, 1948. F. Hindus and Muslims drive for Kashmir. 1. Kashmir is at the Federal point of India next to Pakistan. 2. It had a Hindu ruler, but the absolute majority of people living there was Muslim. 3. Fighting continued until UN arranged cease-fire in 1949. 4. One-third went to Pakistan (Muslims) and the rest to India (Hindus). IV. Modern India A. India has get under ones skin the worlds largest democracy. 1.India gained independence in August 15, 1947. 2. Jawaharlal Nehru (the nonsymbiotic nations first apex parson) addressed Indias freedom. B. Nehru is the leader. 1. He served the first 17 years of Indias independence as leader. 2. He was a devoted fol turn away of Gandhi. 3. He emphasized democracy, unity, and economical modernization, and became very prevalent with all Indian free radicals. C. Nehru rideed India forward. 1. He led juvenilely independent nations into making adherences with natural(prenominal) non aligned nations. 2. He re steerd the states by language and pushed for industrialization and hearty reform. 3.He raised the status of those in lower class (lower castes and women). D. A new leader came. 1. Nehru died in 1964. 2. His daughter, Indira Gandhi, became prime minister in 1966, left office, and was re elected in 1980. E. Challenges set on Indira caused more violent acts and death. 1. Sikh extremists requisiteed an independent state. 2. The deluxe Temple was the Sikhs religious center. 3. The Sikhs beleaguered symbols of Indian authority, so Indians soldiery overran the Golden Temple, killing calciferol Sikhs and terminateing sacred property. 4. Indira was gunned down by Sikh dates and another murder spree occurred, killing thousands of Sikhs. . Indiras son, Rajiv, became prime minister, but lost power because of corruption. He was then killed. F. Atal Bihari Vajpayee confront problems. 1. The leader of the nationalist party of India, Vajpayee, faced challenges of overpopulation and skirmish among religions. 2. The struggle surrounded by India and Pakistan was bad, now that they became thermonuclear powers. India exploded a nuclear device in 1974. For 24 years, India improved nuclear capability in private. In 1998, 5 nuclear tests were conducted. Pakistanis also showed they had nuclear capabilities.The nuclear weapons of both rival groups became an international concern, especially because of Hindus and Muslims continuous struggle over Kashmir. V. Pakistan Copes with Freedom A. Pakistan was already very turbulent and had differences amongst West Pakistan and East Pakistan. B. The two regions of Pakistan struggled with each other. 1. A tidal expand hit East Pakistan and killed 266,000 residents in 1970, calling for international aid that West Pakistan was not eager in giving. 2. East Pakistan protested and called to end all ties with West Pakistan. C. Pakistan undergoes its own partition. 1.On March 26, 1971, East Pakistan became Bangladesh. 2. Civil war stony-broke out. Indians sided with Bangladesh and Pakistan surrendered. 3. 1 million people died. 4. One-seventh of area and one-half of the population in Pakistan was lost. D. Pakistan is inst adequate to(p). 1. After the death of the first governor general of India, the nation had no strong leader and went by many military coups. First in 195 8 by Ali Bhutto Second in 1977 by general Zia Third Benazir Bhutto, Alis daughter, became prime minister. Fourth, Sharif in 1997. VI. Bangladesh and Sri Lanka Struggle A. Bangladesh faces many problems. 1.War brought economic and communication issues in Bangladesh. 2. Sheik Mujibur Rahman became the first prime minister of Bangladesh. Interested more in power than making reparations 3. Bangladesh tries to become democratic and mockery and corruption was common. Recently, it has been more stable and Begum Khaleda Zia became prime minister in 2001. 4. Natural disasters were troublesome. Bangladesh (low-lying) is subject to cyclones, tidal waves, immense storms which floods works, ruins harvest-feasts, takes lives, and homes. 5. Rapid growth in population put stress on the economy. B. There is civil strife in Sri Lanka. . Sinhalese Buddhists and Tamil Hindus make up the two main groups in Sri Lanka. 2. Tamils valued to become a separate Tamil nation and violence occurred in order to do so. Rajiv Gandhi and the president on Sri Lanka made an agreement that called Indian troops to disarm Tamil rebels. A civil war mingled with Tamils and Sri Lankans still exists. New Nations in Africa Chapter 34 contribution 3 I. Setting the interpret A. Africa was also a nation victim to colonization. B. Like India, they were unwilling to exceed to colonization after WWII, so they also won their independence and went on to creating new African nations.II. Achieving Independence A. A movement is made for Black Heritage. 1. The communicative Africans and West Indians grew pride for traditional Africa. 2. The Negritude movement (movement to celebrate African refinement, heritage, and values) was formed. B. WWII changed the views of colonies and colonizers, which helped Africa gain independence from 1950s-1960s. 1. The African conjugate Europeans in WWII to defend freedom, and were unwilling to return to colonization. 2. The European colonizers developed morale and wondered whether it was a good idea to still hold colonies.In addition to morale, maintaining colonies was costly and wasnt viewed as something worth losing money for. C. Africa achieved independence in a unique way. 1. Unlike other colonized areas that pushed for independence, Africa was colonized indirectly and directly. Those who were command indirectly were able to enjoy limited self-rule and were govern by local officials. They achieved independence more easily. Those ruled directly were governed at all levels by foreigners and did not have any self rule. To get independence, they had to fight wars. D. Africa struggled even after they gained their independence. . They had to start from scratch creating a new gov. , and establishing postcolonial economy. 2. Internal conflicts made it hard create stable nations. When colonized by Europeans, Africa was separated by random and many tribes who shared the identical culture were divided and enclosed with rival groups, causing violence. III. gold coast Leads the Way A. The Gold Coast, a British colony, achieves all-encompassing independence. 1. The Gold Coast (South of the Sahara) achieved independence, so British giveed for Africans to be nominated for legislative council. 2. However, they wanted full freedom and created a group. . Kwame Nkrumah (leader of the nonviolent group) organized strikes and boycotts, and was also imprisoned many times, (starting in 1947) eventually being able to liberate the Gold Coast from the British government. B. Good intentions called for opposition against Nkrumah. 1. The Gold Coast became gold coast (from the Ghana Kingdom of Africa) after it received its independence in 1957. 2. Nkrumah, the first prime-minister and president for life, pushed for industrialization by twist new passageways, schools, and health facilities. 3. His programs were too costly, and people began to oppose him. C.Ghana still continues to struggle. 1. Nkrumah was criticized for neglecting economic issues. 2 . When in china (1966) he was replaced by the police and army in Ghana. 3. The power shifts between civilian and military rule, and Ghana struggles economically. 4. 2000 marks the first open election in Ghana. IV. Fighting for Freedom A. The British is forced to allow Kenyan self-government. 1. The British were unwilling to give Kenyans independence because theyve taken over prized farmland in the northern highlands of Kenya. 2. The Kenyans had 2 developments which forced British to surrender.Jomo Kenyattas (Kenyan nationalist) strong leadership. The Mau Mau, a secret society of mostly native Australian Kenyan farmers forced out of the highlands by British people. B. The Mau Mau fight for independence. 1. Guerilla tactics were used to push out the British from the highlands. 2. Kenyatta had no connection to the Mau Mau but did not stop them from fighting for their freedom. 3. Kenyatta was imprisoned for nearly a decade. 4. Kenya was granted independence in 1963, however, 10,00 Af ricans and 100 settlers died. C. After gaining independence, Kenya still faced some struggles from pathetic leadership. 1.Kenyatta became the president and worked to reunite various groups in his nation, but he died in 1978. 2. He was succeeded by a weak leader, Daniel arap Moi. 3. Under Mois leadership was opposition to his one-sided rule, corruption, and conflicts between ethnicities killing hundreds and making thousands homeless. 4. He left office in 2002, and a new party gained power through elections. D. Algeria wins independence through battle. 1. Algeria had a population of 1 million french and 9 million Arabs and Berber Muslims. 2. French did not want to share political power with the natives even after WWII. . The FLN (Algerian National Liberation strawman) would fight for freedom, and upon hearing this, the French sent half a million troops to fight the FLN. 4. The FLN won and gained independence in July 1962. E. uncertainty within Algeria calls for civil war. 1. The F LN leader, Ahmed Ben Bella, becomes president and attempts to make Algeria follow socialism, but is revolutionisen. 2. From 1965-1988, Algeria tried to modernize, but failed. Religious fundamentalists wanted to make Algeria an Islamic state because they were dissatisfied with the current government and high unemployment rates. 3.The Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) won elections in 1990 and 1991, but the government and army refused the declarations. 4. Civil war broke out between Islamic militants and the government, and goes on and off until this day. V. Civil War in Congo and Angola A. The people of Congo were spur-of-the-moment for independence, and it led to turmoil. 1. Belgians colonized and plundered Congo taking all its riches and resources such as no-account and copper. 2. They gave no social services to the natives of Congo, and did not prepare them for independence. 3. They granted Congo (aka Zaire from 1971-1997) independence in 1960, which cause upheaval, and civil war .B. Congo goes through two leaders. 1. Years of civil war sprung up, and Mobutu Sese Seko (aka Colonel Joseph Mobutu) seized power in 1965. He renamed Congo to Zaire and ruled it for 32 years. He held control over Zaire with force, one-party rule, and bribing supporters with gifts. He withstood rebellions. 2. In 1997, he was overthrown by Laurent Kabila (rebel leader). Zaire was renamed The Democratic Republic of Congo. C. Kabila wasnt the leader people hoped for, and a new leader rises. 1. He became president and promised a democracy, but never delivered it. 2. Civil war broke out again, and rebel groups wanted to overthrow Kabila. . He was assassinated by a bodyguard in 2001. 4. Joseph Kabila, his son, took power and pushed for peace. 5. Rebels stopped rebelling in 2002 in hope that the peace may come. D. Angola (South West of Congo) fought for independence. 1. Angola was ruled by the Portuguese who were unwilling to let go of their colony. 2. An independence movement broke out an d Portugal sent 50,000 troops to end it, which wiped out half of Portugals budget. 3. The cost of war and the wars opposition in Portugal called for them to withdraw from Angola in 1975. E. Civil war broke out in Angola. 1.Angola became a new nation, and the MPLA (Communist leaning Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola) declared itself as the government. 2. Rebel groups fought against the government for power. 3. 50,000 Cuban troops and Soviet Union supported the MPLA. 4. South Africa and the U. S. supported the UNITA (the major opposition to the MPLA National Union for the agree Independence of Angola) 5. The MPLA and UNITA abandoned many cease-fire agreements, but in 2002, a peace accord was agree to and the civil war ended. Conflicts in the Middle East Chapter 34 Section 4 I. Setting the Stage A.By the end of WWII, Judaic finally gained its own state, which proved to have bad consequences. 1. The Jewish gained a state that was located by the Mediterranean Sea. 2. It con sisted of mostly Arabs who rejected the creation of a Jewish state. 3. Palestinians claimed Jewish states to be theirs, therefore opposing Jewish states. 4. Wars were fought between Jews and Arabs, and Jews and Palestinians. II. Israel Becomes a State A. Palestinians, Jews, and Arabs all claim the same lands (Israel, West Bank, and the Gaza Strip in modern day Palestine). 1. Jews reason 3,000 before, Jewish Kings ruled the lands from Jerusalem. . Palestinians reason land was theirs since Jewish exile on A. D. 135. 3. Arabs reason their conquest of the lands in the 7th century (600s). B. The Jews wanted to return to Palestine and gain a Jewish state centuries after their exile. 1. The Jewish were unable to gain their own state after their exile, and dispersed around the world (Diaspora). 2. Zionists (people who favored a Jewish state in Palestine) started returning to their homeland during the 19th and 20th centuries (1800s-1900s). C. A British idea of creating a Jewish homeland in Palestine cause sparks between the Jews and Palestinians. 1.The British directed Palestine (League of Nations commands) as a result of the loss of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in WWI. 2. Many Jews were in Palestine, and pressed for their own nation. 3. Palestinians strange the idea, so when Secretary Sir Arthur Balfour of Britain proposed creating a Jewish state while keeping the rights of non-Jewish communities (Balfour Declaration) and the plan failed, tensions rose between Palestinians and Jews. D. The U. S. and many European nations felt sympathy towards the Jews, who were targeted in the Holocaust, so they devised a plan that would give Jews what they desired. 1.The UN General Assembly voted for partition in Palestine, one part being a Palestinian state, the other being a Jewish state, and Jerusalem being an international city owned by no one. 2. The Jews made up 34% of the population but gained 55% of the land. E. The partition was set, although Muslims and Palestines rejected it. 1. The UN has no right to make such a proposal without first consulting the majority who will be affected by it. - Muslims and Palestinians. 2. David Ben Gurion (leader of Jews in Palestine) inform that the independent nation of Israel was formed on May 14, 1948. III. Israel and Arab States in Conflict A.War broke out between Israeli and Arab states. 1. The first one (won by Israel) was a day before Israel became a nation, where Islamic states (Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi, Arabia, and Syria invaded Israel. B. The partition wasnt fully effective because of fighting. 1. Israel seized half of Palestine in 1948-1949. 2. 600,000 Palestinians left to near UN sponsored refugee camps. 3. Arabs also seized Palestinian lands. C. War broke out in 1956 during the Suez Crisis. 1. Egypt seized the Suez Canal. 2. Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egyptian president) sent troops to seized the canal controlled by British because he was angry that the U.S. and British stopped financially supporting E gypts Aswan Dam. 3. Britain formed an alliance with France and israel to regain the Suez canal. 4. Israel defeated the Egyptians using air support of their European allies. 5. The war ended when the U. S. and Soviets forced Israel and Europeans out of Egypt, ultimately giving Egypt the Suez Canal by the end of the Suez Crisis. D. Another war broke out in 1967, called the Six-Day War. 1. Nasser and Arab allies, equipped with Soviet tanks and aircraft were ready to confront Israel and close off Israels outlet to the Red Sea, the disjuncture of Aqaba. 2.Israelis knew Arabs would attack, so the struck airfields in Egypt, Iran, Jordan, and Syria, and ground forces defeated Arab states in this Six-Day War. 4. Israelis gained the lands around them (Jerusalem, Sinai Peninsula, The Golden Heights, and the West Bank). 5. They served as buffers for future attacks. 6. Palestinians living in Jerusalem chose Jordanian citizenship, and others not living in Jerusalem went other Jewish control. E. A fourth War broke out in October 1973, called the Yom Kippur War. 1. Anwar Sadat,(Egyptian president who succeeded Nasser) planned an Arab attack on Israel during Yom Kippur. . Sadat was able to reconquer land lost in the Six-Day War. 3. Golda Meir (prime minister of Israel during the Yom Kippur War) counterattacked and regained most the land. 4. After weeks of fighting, a truce was declared. F. Palestinians pushed for recognition and its own state. 1. The UN had given Palestinians its own state during the partition, but the land given was seized by Israelis during their vast amount of wars. 2. The PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) was organized by Palestinian officials in 1964, and initially consisted mostly of social workers, like teachers, lawyers. 3.Guerilla fighters then dominated the PLO and insisted that to get what they want, it needs to be done by message of struggle. 4. Yasir Arafat became PLOs chairman in 1969 and carried out attacks on Israel, which was supported by Arabs, since they were able to operate on Arab land. IV. Efforts at peace A. An attempt of peace was made by Anwar Sadat. 1. In 1977, he declared that Israeli parliament (Knesset) and Arabs make peace, with the terms that Israel returns the land they took in the Six-Day War and recognize Palestinian rights. B. An agreement is reached between the Israel and Arab country. 1.President Carter invited Anwar and the Israeli prime minister, Menachem Begin, to a presidential retreat, Camp David, Maryland, 2. There, Begin and Sadat negotiated, and finally in 1979, Carter announced that Egypt recognized the Israeli state and Israel returned the Sinai Peninsula, in an agreement called the Camp David Accords. C. Peace was maintained even after Anwars assassination. 1. Muslim extremists were enraged at his plan for peace, and killed him. 2. Hosni Mubarak maintained the peace. D. Tensions increased between Israelis and Palestinians. 1. The military of PLO escalate its armed struggle with Isra el during the 1970s-1980s. . Israel responded by bombing bases of Palestinian towns and invading neighboring countries such as Lebanon, to destroy Palestinian strongholds. 3. Israel became involved in the Lebanon civil war and was forced to withdraw. 4. Palestinians showed their frustration with civil disobedience (using boycotts, attacks on Israeli soldiers, demonstrations, and rock throwing) called intifada (uprising) in 1987. 5.This put global pressure on Israel, which forced them to organize peace talks with Israeli and Palestinian delegates on October 1991. E. The peace talks made little progress, so a new document was made. . Secret talks in Oslo, Norway produced an agreement called the Oslo Peace Accords (Declaration of Principles), which stated that Palestinians have self-rule in the Gaza Strip and West Bank, beginning with the town of Jericho. 2. The agreement was signed on September 13, 1993 by the Israeli prime minister, Yitzhak Rabin, and Arafat. F. The agreement was ha rd to work out. 1. A Jewish extremist, who inappropriate concessions to Palestinians, assassinated Rabin in 1995. 2. He was succeeded by Benjamin Netanyahu, who also opposed the Oslo Accords, but was willing to keep to the agreement. . He met with Arafat in 1997 to discuss Israeli partial withdrawal from the West Bank. V. Peace Slips outside A. The peace agreement is stalled. 1. Prime Minister Ehud Barak (1999) supported the peace plan more than Netanyahu. 2. (2000) Bill Clinton hosted a summit meeting between Ehud Barak and Arafat in Camp David, but they couldnt reach a compromise. B. A second intifada was launched. 1. An Israeli political leader, Ariel Sharon, visited the Dome of the Rock, a reverend place for Muslims. 2. Muslims were outraged and broke out a new intifada. 3.The second intifada was much like the first one, but instead, include suicide bombers which called for more bloodshed. 4. The Israelis responded by bombing likely Palestinian refugee camps, where extremist c ould be hiding. They also bombed Arafats headquarters. C. Peace seems far from being reached. 1. Ariel Sharon became the prime minister of Israel in 2001, and refused to negotiate with the Palestinians if the attacks of suicide bomber continued. 2. Israeli officials declared to no longer meet with Arafat, who had strained relations with many Israeli leaders. D.A ancestor for peace is being worked on. 1. Arafat agreed to lessen his involvement in peace talks, and the first prime minister of the PLO, Mahmoud Abbas, was appointed in 2003. 2. George W. Bush brought together Sharon and Abbas to work on a peace plan called the road map. E. Sharon and Abbas are willing to find a solution. 1. Sharon declared that he looks for the day when Palestinians can govern themselves in their own state. 2. Abbas declares that the goal was for Israel and Palestine to live side-by-side in peace and security. Central Asian Struggles Chapter 34 Section 5 I. Setting the Stage A.The region of Central Asia changes throughout history because it has been invaded by many effective groups (Mongols, Byzantines, Ottomans, and the rulers of the Soviet Union. B. The people of this region still tried to keep its culture, and longed to create their own nations. 1. It was made possible with the fall of the Soviets Union. C. They were faced with challenges in making strong independent nations. II. Freedom Brings New Challenges A. Two geographic areas are made. 1. The Soviet Union fell in 1991. 2. Their republics in the south became 15 independent nations which were die into two geographic areas. 3.Transcaucasian Republics (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia) lies between the Black and Caspian seas, on the Caucasus Mountains. 4. Central Asian Republics (Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan) lies east of the Caspian sea and extends to the Tian Shan and Pamir mountains. B. These independent nations deeply depended on the Soviet Union for economic help, so they could not be independent. C. The Soviets made economic practices which weakened these nations economy. 1. Eg The Soviets made Central Asian Republics available farms grow cotton, and having only a single crop made the economy unbalanced.D. Azerbaijan can receive income through its richness in oil, because of the Caspian Sea. Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan are still tapping into their oil reserves. E. Ethnic and religious differences causes conflict. F. With the fall of the Soviet Union, who prevented the nations from fighting because of the ironfist rule, the ethnic groups began to battle. 1. Eg Azerbaijan (Muslim country), which surrounded Nagorno-Karabakh (Armenian Christians), battled the Armenians during 1991-1994 when the Armenians pushed to be a new independent nation. III. Afghanistan and the World A.Afghanistan (mostly Muslim nation), which is the least developed country (it was inhabited by farmers or herders), impress the world with war against the Soviet Union and U. S. B. Afghanista n had many struggles already. 1. Russia wanted Afghanistan because it was near the Indian Ocean 2. British wanted to protect the northern border of its Indian Empire with Afghanistans land, eventually fighting 3 wars prior to 1919. C. Afghanistan tries to modernize. 1. In 1919, Afghanistan declared itself a new independent nation, setting up a monarchy. 2. In 1964, reforms and a switch to a democratic government was proposed. . Officials could not agree on reforms, and people people were not interested in the Afghanistan government, so the proposals did not carry out. D. fabianism starts to influence Afghanistan. 1. Afghanistan became stable lavish to have ties with the U. S. and Soviet Union. 2. They were nonaligned during the Cold War and received support from both sides. 3. They were closely situated with the Soviets. 4. Military leaders overthrew the government in 1973 and rival groups who had close ties with Soviet communists seized power in 1978. 5. Communism conflicted wit h Islamic teachings.E. The Afghanis stayed loyal to their religion and did not fall to communism. 1. Those who believed that communism conflicted with Islamic teachings formed a group called Mujahideen, who freely fought and rebelled against the government supported by the Soviets. 2. The Soviets heard about this and tried to conquer Afghanistan in 1979-1980 as a new nation in its communist empire. 3. Afghanistan was supported by the U. S. and used guerilla warfare and their knowledge of the terrain to their advantage. 4. In a bloody 10 year war, the Soviets withdrew, and Afghanistan won.F. With the Soviets gone, rebels groups fought for power, and the victor was the Taliban. 1. They were a conservative Islamic group who were controlled 90% of the country by 1998. 2. They turned out to be Islamic Extremists who made unyielding rules that controlled every aspect of life (woman could not have jobs or go to school, you couldnt listen to melody or watch TV) and punished those who did not listen (severe beating, amputation, and execution). G. The Taliban played a major role in terrorism. 1. They allowed terrorists to train in Afghanistan. 2.They provided refuge to the al-Qaeda leader, Osama lay in Laden. 3. After September 11, the Taliban was asked to give up Osama Bin Laden, but they refused. 4. The U. S. bombed Taliban air defense, airfields, and command centers. 5. The Northern Alliance (anti-Taliban force) was supported by the U. S. and finally was able to overthrow the Taliban. H. Hamid Karzai, the selected leader after the overthrow of the Taliban, would find it hard to stabilize a nation who has been under decades of warfare, and he would also find it difficult to unite a nation with 12 different ethnic groups.

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